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Tuesday, July 28, 2009

Fraser River salmon run is low for summer





VANCOUVER, British Columbia, July 27 (UPI) -- "Canadian officials have closed the sockeye fishery on the Fraser River and cut the estimate of sockeye salmon swimming up the river 165,000 to 85,000.
"Fraser River water temperatures are forecast to reach approximately 68.9 degrees Fahrenheit by Aug. 1. Water temperatures exceeding 68 degrees may cause high en route mortality of Fraser River sockeye," a Fisheries and Oceans Canada report said.

The closing of the sockeye salmon fishery until further notice could be a problem for first nations who need the fish for food, The Vancouver Sun reported Monday."

Source:http://www.upi.com/Top_News/2009/07/27/Fraser-River-salmon-run-is-low-for-summer/UPI-11491248748522/"

According to the online document at: "link"

these are some of the reasons why the temperature of a river may increase:

(a)Due to an increase in the air temperature,
(b)Due to the fact that their is more direct sunlight on the water than before,
(c)Runoff from heated pavement,commercial roofs and baresoil, which enters the river,
(d)Heavy rainfall which causes warm water to overflow from ponds or catch basins into the river, and
(e)direct discharge from facilities with permits.

According to the document: science direct

"Healthy river conditions through sufficient flows and optimal temperatures are of paramount importance for the survival of Pacific salmon, which migrate upriver toward the headwaters to spawn near the end of their lives. Trends have been detected which indicate that the annual flow and summer temperature have been increasing since the middle of the last century."

"Both the observations and model indicate that during the last half of the 20th century, the summer temperature near the river mouth has been increasing at a rate of approximately 0.12 °C per decade in August." The authors of this research suggest that "climate change" is responsible for the increase in temperature of the water of the Fraser River.

In another study at: link

 it is stated:

" Fraser River watershed is a major spawning ground for Sockeye and Chinook Salmon, accounting for the majority of the Canadian stocks (DFO 1 1999, DFO 2 1999). Sockeye Salmon begin their lives inspawning beds distributed throughout the watershed. Eggs laid in these beds hatch in the following spring. After spending the next year in fresh water, they move into the ocean for a period of 2-3 years after which time they return to their original natal streams where they spawn and then die. On the migration back to the spawning beds the salmon are sensitive to the river water temperatures and there is a strong correlation between pre-spawning mortality and high river temperature (Gilhousen, 1990; Rand and Hinch, 1998;Williams, 2000). Temperatures between 22°C and 24°C over a period of several days can be fatal for salmon (Servizi and Jensen, 1977) and temperatures over 24°C can cause death within a few hours (Bouke et al., 1975)."

"Summer water temperatures have been recorded manually at Hells Gate since the early
‘40s. Typically these recordings were made from July 1 through Sept. 15 but
unfortunately in the early years there was much missing data. In this paper the river
temperature comparisons are based on the manual data collected at Hells Gate between
1961 and 1990. Recently this activity was supplemented by the installation of an
automatic data recorder at Qualark, a few kilometres down stream from Hells Gate. Of
all of the summer river temperatures recorded at these locations, the highest was 21.2 °C occurring on Aug. 3, 1998, and the lowest was 11.0 °C recorded on July 1, 1955. Restricting the analysis to the time span when records are almost contiguous (i.e. 1953- 1998), it was found that the summer mean temperature, which ranges from 15 °C –19 °C, was increasing at a rate of 0.022 °C per year with a significance of 98%. Fig. 3 shows the latest available summer mean temperatures with their linear trend line. This line has a slope of 0.018 °C per year with a significance of 95%."

The conclusion of this study is ALARMING:

"unless the salmon can adapt by changing their time of migration, these increasing
temperatures can be expected to have dramatic impacts on spawning success and viability of species."

What if the salmon cannot adapt quick enough? Obviously, there will no longer be any more salmon in the Fraser River!

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"Our subconscious minds have no sense of humor, play no jokes and cannot tell the difference between reality and an imagined thought or image. What we continually think about eventually will manifest in our lives."-Sidney Madwed



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A person's true wealth is the good he or she does in the world. - Mohammed



Our task must be to free ourselves... by widening our circle of compassion to embrace all living creatures and the whole of nature and its beauty. -Albert Einstein



The best way to find yourself, is to lose yourself in the service of others. - Ghandi



The unselfish effort to bring cheer to others will be the beginning of a happier life for ourselves. - Helen Keller



Aim for success, not perfection. Never give up your right to be wrong, because then you will lose the ability to learn new things and move forward with your life. Remember that fear always lurks behind perfectionism. Confronting your fears and allowing yourself the right to be human can, paradoxically, make yourself a happier and more productive person. - Dr. David M. Burns



Life is as dear to a mute creature as it is to man. Just as one wants happiness and fears pain, just as one wants to live and not die, so do other creatures. -His Holiness The Dalai Lama



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Milan Kundera, The Unbearable Lightness of Being



The worst sin towards our fellow creatures is not to hate them, but to be indifferent to them. That's the essence of inhumanity. -George Bernard Shaw

Ego's trick is to make us lose sight of our interdependence. That kind of ego-thought gives us a perfect justification to look out only for ourselves. But that is far from the truth. In reality we all depend on each other and we have to help each other. The husband has to help his wife, the wife has to help the husband, the mother has to help her children, and the children are supposed to help the parents too, whether they want to or not.-Gehlek Rinpoche Source: "The Best Buddhist Writing 2005 pg. 165

The hostile attitude of conquering nature ignores the basic interdependence of all things and events---that the world beyond the skin is actually an extension of our own bodies---and will end in destroying the very environment from which we emerge and upon which our whole life depends.